Phillip A. Alviola is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Banos, and a bat ecologist with over 20 years experience and a publication track record of more than 40 research articles in scientific journals. He is a recipient of the DOST-NAST Outstanding Young Scientist in 2017, and received a commendation by the Philippine Senate (under House Resolution No. 141) in 2019 as one of the eight Filipinos included in the top 100 scientists in the Asia-Pacific Region. His area of expertise includes Ecology of Philippine Wildlife, Mammalian Ecology and Taxonomy, Cave Ecology, Conservation Biology, and Ecology of Bat Zoonotics. Prof. Alviola conducts bat zoonotic research since 2007 with various international virologists, which resulted in the discovery of several novel virus genotypes including coronavirus, hantavirus, and gammaherpes virus from Philippine bats. Prof. Alviola’s work in mammalian ecology and taxonomy has resulted in publication of 16 scientific papers in international peer-reviewed journals including description of 12 new mammal species in the Philippines

Sex: Male


  • Master of Science in Wildlife Studies, University of the Philippines Los Banos
  • Bachelor of Science in Biology, University of the Philippines Los Banos

Field of Specialization


Biodiversity Monitoring

Wildlife Conservation

Wildlife Ecology


Article title: Integrative taxonomy and biogeography of Asian yellow house bats (Vespertilionidae: Scotophilus) in the Indomalayan Region

Authors: Vuong Tan Tu, Tamás Görföl, Gábor Csorba, Satoru Arai, et al.

Publication title: Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 59(3): 772-795, January 2021


Yellow house bats (Scotophilus) have been known for centuries as a widespread genus of vesper bats in the Indomalayan Region. Despite this, their taxonomic status and phylogeographical patterns remain unclear due to differing criteria employed by early taxonomists and inconsistencies between morphological and molecular assessments. To address these issues, we undertook a comparative phylogeographic analysis of Asian Scotophilus spp. using integrated genetic and morphological analyses of samples collected across the region. These demonstrate that yellow house bats in Asia can be classified into just two widespread species, namely the smaller S. kuhlii (e.g., FA ≤ 53.1 mm, GLS ≤ 20.18 mm) and the larger S. heathii (e.g., FA ≥ 53.4 mm, GLS ≥ 20.85 mm), which occur in sympatry in different parts of the Indomalayan Region. Although these two sympatric species share similar eco‐ethological preferences, they differ considerably in their geographic distributions and intraspecific variation in mtDNA sequences and morphological traits. These disparities were likely misinterpreted as indicating potential cryptic diversity in previous studies, whereas we suggest they are related to interspecific differences in sex‐biased gene flow and phenotypic plasticity to adapt to varying environments. Our study highlights the importance of using multiple datasets to resolve taxonomic uncertainties and reconstruct demographic and phylogeographic histories of sympatric species.

Article title: Comparative histological studies on properties of polysaccharides secreted by vomeronasal glands of eight Laurasiatheria species

Authors: Daisuke Kondoh,  Jumpei Tomiyasu, Raito Itakura, Mizuho Sugahara, et al.

Publication title: Acta Histochemica 122(3): 151515, February 2020


Most mammalian species have a vomeronasal organ that detects specific chemical substances, such as pheromones. Mucous fluid covering the vomeronasal sensory epithelium is secreted by vomeronasal glands, and the properties of these fluids have been suggested to be involved in chemical detection. Histological studies using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue pH 2.5 (AB) stains, which respectively detect natural and acidic polysaccharides, have suggested variations in the nature of the vomeronasal glands among species. Here, we investigated the responsivity of the vomeronasal glands to PAS and AB stains in eight Laurasiatheria species. All species studied herein possessed vomeronasal glands that stained positive for PAS, like other many reported species. The vomeronasal glands of dogs and minks - like rodents, were AB-negative, whereas those of cows, goats, sika deer, musk shrews and two bat species were positive. Considering the present findings and previous reports, the vomeronasal glands in most of Laurasiatheria species appear to be fundamentally abundant in acidic polysaccharides, whereas those in carnivores essentially contains neutral polysaccharides.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Local-Scale Bat Guild Activity Differs with Rice Growth Stage at Ground Level in the Philippines

Authors: Jodi L. Sedlock, Alexander M. Stuart, Finbarr G. Horgan, Buyung Hadi, et al.

Publication title: Diversity 11(9): 148, August 2019


High-flying insectivorous bats, as wide-ranging generalist insectivores, are valuable consumers of high-altitude migrating pests of rice in Southeast Asia. Here, we documented the behavior of relatively low-flying bats over irrigated rice to elucidate their potential role as predators of rice-associated pest insects in the Philippines. Specifically, we tested the local-scale effects of rice stage, particularly seedling and late vegetative stages, and time of night on acoustic activity of bats foraging near ground level within three functional guilds (based on foraging distance from background clutter). We also monitored bat activity from two 50 m-high towers to assess the vertical extent of relatively low-flying guilds, as well as document high-flying bat guild presence and temporal behavior. At ground level, the most active guild biased their activity and feeding over early growth stage fields, but also foraged at tower level. Activity of the bat guild adept at foraging closest to vegetation did not vary with time of night or rice stage and was absent from tower recordings. High-flying bats were predictably rare at rice level, but exhibited high foraging intensity at 50 m. Given the well-documented, sequential arrival of insect guilds with growth stage, these data suggest that at ground level edge-space bats may be important consumers of detritivores (e.g., mosquitoes). Moreover, our data suggest that just as habitat heterogeneity enhances the services of arthropod predators, these management practices also enhance bat activity and, presumably, their contribution to pest suppression.

Article title: Seasonal emergence counts from a multispecies horseshoe bat (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) roost in the Philippines

Authors: Frex D. Dimaculangan, Angela Como Jacobson, Phillip Alviola, James Alvarez, et al.

Publication title: Journal of Bat Research and Conservation 12(1), 2019


The seasonal roost use of Philippine horseshoe bats (Family: Rhinolophidae) is poorly known. Here, we monitored an undisturbed rock crevice roost comprised of four Rhinolophus species on Mount Makiling, Philippines, to document seasonal changes in colony size and species composition. Evening emergences were videotaped using an IR spotlight and an IR-sensitive camera and were acoustically recorded using an ultrasonic detector. Emergence counts ranged from an average of 7,965 bats in the wet season to 177 bats in the dry season. Higher emergence counts in the wet season, and the presence of post-lactating females and juveniles, together indicated that Rhinolophus arcuatus and Rhinolophus inops used the rock crevice as a maternity roost. Rhinolophus macrotis and Rhinolophus virgo were detected during all survey months but comprised a smaller proportion of the wet-season emergence than R. arcuatus and R. inops. These data, while limited in scope, provide the first evidence of seasonal cave use by Philippine horseshoe bats and highlight the potential conservation value of this particular roost as a maternity site for horseshoe bats within the Makiling Forest Reserve.

Article title: Two new species of shrew-rats (Rhynchomys: Muridae: Rodentia) from Luzon Island, Philippines

Authors: Eric A. Rickart, Danilo S. Balete, Robert M. Timm, Phillip A. Alviola,

Publication title: Journal of Mammalogy 100(4): 1112-1129, July 2019


The murine genus Rhynchomys includes the large-bodied Philippine “shrew-rats,” highly specialized members of the vermivorous clade of Philippine murids. Four species are recognized, all of which are endemic to Luzon Island: R. soricoides from mountains within the Central Cordillera, R. isarogensis from Mt. Isarog on the Bicol Peninsula, R. banahao from Mt. Banahaw in south-central Luzon, and R. tapulao from Mt. Tapulao in the Zambales Mountains. Field surveys in 2006 and 2008 revealed two additional populations of Rhynchomys, one from Mt. Labo (1,544 m), a dormant stratovolcano at the base of the Bicol Peninsula, the other from Mt. Mingan (1,901 m), the highest peak in the central Sierra Madre of east-central Luzon. Assessment of external and craniodental features of available specimens from throughout Luzon support our description of the populations on Mt. Labo and Mt. Mingan as new species. All species of Rhynchomys are restricted to high-elevation, montane, and mossy forest habitats, separated by intervening lowlands. These discoveries highlight the importance of isolated highland areas in the historical diversification of Southeast Asian murines, and as current centers of endemism.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Diversity and threats to cave-dwelling bats in a small island in Southern Philippines

Authors: Ma. Niña Regina M. Quiboda, Phillip A. Alviola, Anna Pauline O. de Guia, Virginia C. Cuevas, et al.

Publication title: Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 12(4): 481-487, December 2019


More than 2,000 caves have been documented in the Philippines, yet cave research is very limited. This study was conducted to provide benchmark information on the diversity and ecology of cave-dwelling bats from Samal Island, a small island in the southern Philippines. Bats were surveyed from thirty caves of varying physical features and disturbances. Fifteen species of bats were identified in the island; 14 of which are new records for the island, increasing the island distribution of the identified bats in the country. The abundance of cave-dwelling bats varied from low to high density, with some caves estimated to harbor more than 10,000 individuals. Abundance and richness of cave-dwelling bats positively increased with longer cave length, higher ceilings, bigger and multiple entrances, and presence of water. The Bat Cave Vulnerability Index (BCVI) revealed three high priority caves, 12 medium priority caves and 15 low priority caves, indicating the importance of standardized method in assessing cave disturbance. Traces of tourism and hunting were the most common disturbance factors. The results of this study highlight the need for fundamental data on the distribution, diversity, and ecology of cave-dweling bats in the Philippines. Keywords: BCVI, Cave assessment, Cave disturbances, Mindanao, Samal island

Article title: Hipposideros obscurus, Philippine Forest Leaf-nosed Bat

Authors: Alviola, P.A., Sedlock, J., Alvarez, J., Fidelino, J., Pedregosa, M., et al.

Publication title: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019


No available

Article title: Cheiromeles parvidens, Lesser Naked Bat

Authors: Alviola, P.A., Duya, M.R., Alvarez, J., Fidelino, J., Gatan-Balbas, et al.

Publication title: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019


No available

Article title: Hipposideros pygmaeus, Philippine Pygmy Leaf-nosed Bat

Authors: Sedlock, J., Alviola, P.A., Alvarez, J., Fidelino, J., et al.

Publication title: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019


No available

Article title: Checklist of ectoparasitic arthropods among cave-dwelling bats from Marinduque Island, Philippines

Authors: Ace Kevin S. Amarga, , Phillip A. Alviola, , Ireneo L. Lit, Jr., Sheryl A. Yap

Publication title: Check List 13(1): 2029, January 2017


This paper constitutes the first ectoparasite faunal survey of bats for Marinduque Island, Philippines. From 1–12 June 2010, 150 bats belonging to 11 species were captured in 11 caves on the island. Each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and a total of 587 individuals representing 21 species, belonging to five families (Acari: Argasidae and Spinturnicidae; Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae; and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) were collected. New host records (new host record) in the Philippines for Brachytarsina cucullata Jobling 1934, B. proxima Jobling 1951, B. werneri Jobling 1951, Raymondia pseudopagodarum Jobling 1951, Eucampsipoda philippinensis Ferris 1924, Nycteribia allotopa Speiser 1901, Nycteribia allotopoides Theodor 1963, Nycteribia parvuloides Theodor 1963, Ancystropus taprobanius (Turk 1950), and Carios batuensis Hirst 1929 were documented. A checklist of the ectoparasitic species known from the Philippines, their distribution, and bat host species is provided.

Article title: A contribution to the ectoparasite fauna of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Mindoro Island, Philippines: I. Blood sucking Diptera (Nycteribiidae, Streblidae) and Siphonaptera (Ischnopsyllidae)

Authors: James D. V. Alvarez, Ireneo L. Lit Jr., Phillip A. Alviola, Edison A Cosico, et al.

Publication title: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 36(4):1-7, September 2016


New data on bat ectoparasites from Mindoro Island, Philippines are reported. Eighty-three individuals of ectoparasitic insects representing seven species of Nyc-teribiidae and fve species of Streblidae (both Diptera), and one species of Ischnopsyllidae (Siphonaptera) were recorded from 11 bat species captured in Naujan Lake National Park, Mindoro Oriental Province, Philippines. Raymondia pagodarum is a new record for the country. Eight species are also newly recorded for Mindoro Island, including Cyclopodia garrula, Leptocyclopodia ferrarii mabuhai, Megastrebla parvior, Brachytarsina amboinensis, B. werneri, R. pagodarum, R. pseudopagodarum and Thaumapsylla longiforceps. Five species are newly documented on various hosts: C. horsfieldi on Pteropus pumilus, M. parvior on Macroglossus minimus, B. amboinensis on Hipposideros diadema, B. werneri on Rhinolophus arcuatus and R. pagodarum on Hipposideros bicolor.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Molecular phylogeny of a genetically divergent hantavirus harbored by the Geoffroy's rousette (Rousettus amplexicaudatus), a frugivorous bat species in the Philippines

Authors: Satoru Arai Satoshi Taniguchi, Keita Aoki, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, et al.

Publication title: Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases 45:26-32, November 2016


The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles (order Eulipotyphla, families Soricidae and Talpidae) prompted a further exploration of their host diversification and geographic distribution by analyzing lung tissues from 376 fruit bats representing six genera (order Chiroptera, suborder Yinpterochiroptera, family Pteropodidae), collected in the Republic of the Philippines during 2008 to 2013. Hantavirus RNA was detected by RT-PCR in one of 15 Geoffroy's rousettes (Rousettus amplexicaudatus), captured in Quezon Memorial National Park on Luzon Island in 2009. Phylogenetic analyses of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Quezon virus (QZNV), shared a common ancestry with hantaviruses hosted by insectivorous bats, in keeping with their evolutionary relationships and suggests that ancestral bats may have served as the early or original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses. As the first hantavirus detected in a megabat or flying fox species, QZNV extends our knowledge about the reservoir host range.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria specie

Authors: Fumi Murakoshi, Frances C. Recuenco, Tsutomu Omatsu, Kaori Sano, et al.

Publication title:Parasitology Research 115(5):1863-9, May 2016


The genus Cryptosporidium, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Bats are naturally infected with zoonotic pathogens; thus, they are potential reservoirs of parasites. We investigated the species and genotype distribution as well as prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria in Philippine bats. We captured and examined 45 bats; four were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and seven were positive for Eimeria spp. We detected Cryptosporidium bat genotype II from Ptenochirus jagori. Three other Cryptosporidium sequences, detected from Rhinolophus inops, Cynopterus brachyotis, and Eonycteris spelaea, could not be classified as any known species or genotype; we therefore propose the novel genotype Cryptosporidium bat genotypes V, VI, and VII. Bat genotype V is associated with human cryptosporidiosis clade, and therefore, this genotype may be transmissible to humans. Among the Eimeria sequences, BE3 detected from Scotophilus kuhlii was classified with known bat and rodent clades; however, other sequences detected from C. brachyotis, E. spelaea, Rousettus amplexicaudatus, and R. inops could not be classified with known Eimeria species. These isolates might represent a new genotype. Our findings demonstrate that the bats of the Philippines represent a reservoir of multiple Cryptosporidium and Eimeria spp.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: The mammals of Mt. Amuyao: A richly endemic fauna in the Central Cordillera of northern Luzon Island, Philippines

Authors: Eric A. Rickart, Danilo S. Balete, Phillip A. Alviola, Maria J. Veluz, et al.

Publication title: Mammalia 80(6), January 2016


Faunas of old oceanic islands often have extremely high levels of endemism and are considered highly susceptible to anthropogenic disruption. We surveyed the richly endemic small mammal fauna on Mt. Amuyao in the Central Cordillera of northern Luzon Island, Philippines. We tested hypotheses regarding elevational patterns of species richness and community composition, community response to habitat disturbance, and interactions of native and non-native mammals. Our study revealed greater species richness and faunal heterogeneity within the Central Cordillera than previously suspected. We documented 15 native species (14 rodents and 1 insectivore), and two species of non-native rodents. All of the native species are endemic to the Philippines, eight being restricted to the Cordillera. Twelve of the 14 native rodents belong to two ancient endemic clades, indicating that most of the regional diversity is the product of

Article title: Bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from Mount Makiling, Luzon Island: New host and distribution records, with a checklist of species found in the Philippines

Authors: James D. V. Alvarez, Ireneo L. Lit, Jr., Phillip A. Alviola

Publication title: Check List 11(1):1509, January 2015


Our survey in Mount Makiling Forest Reserve, Luzon Island, Philippines from April to May 2011 revealed new host records of bat fly species (Diptera: Nycteribiidae), including: Eucampsipoda philippinensis Ferris, Cyclopodia garrula Maa, C. horsfieldi de Mejeire, Phthiridium brachyacantha (Theodor) and Penicillidia acuminata Theodor. We also report C. garrula as a new record for Luzon Island. A checklist of the species known from the Philippines with the known distribution and bat host species was also provided.

Article title: A Multicountry Assessment of Tropical Resource Monitoring by Local Communities

Authors: Finn Danielsen, Per M. Jensen, Neil D. Burgess, Ronald Altamirano, et al.

Publication title: BioScience 64(3):236-251, March 2014


The rapid global growth of conservation schemes designed to incentivize local communities to conserve natural resources has placed new importance on biological monitoring to assess whether agreements and targets linked to payments are being met. To evaluate competence in natural resource monitoring, we compared data on status and trends collected independently by local-community members and trained scientists for 63 taxa and five types of resource use in 34 tropical forest sites across four countries over 2.5 years. We hypothesized that the results would vary according to differences in the education and value systems of the monitors. We found that, despite considerable differences in countries, cultures, and the types of natural resources monitored, the community members and the scientists produced similar results for the status of and trends in species and natural resources. Our findings highlight the potential value of locally based natural resource monitoring for conservation decisionmaking across developing countries.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Phylogeography of the Robsonius Ground-Warblers (Passeriformes: Locustellidae) Reveals an Undescribed Species from Northeastern Luzon, Philippines (La Filogeografía de Robsonius (Passeriformes: Locustellidae) Revela una Especie No Descripta del Noreste de Luzón, Filipinas)

Authors: Peter A. Hosner, Nikki C. Boggess, Phillip Alviola, Luis A. Sánchez-González, et al.

Publication title: The Condor 115(3):630-639, August 2013


The Robsonius ground-warblers are forest birds endemic to the Luzon Island complex in the Philippine archipelago. Their systematic relationships have long remained ambiguous; until recently they were included in the timaliid genus Napothera. Two Robsonius species are currently recognized on the basis of plumage differences: R. rabori from northern Luzon in the Cordillera Central and the northern Sierra Madre, and R. sorsogonensis from southern Luzon and Catanduanes Island. Recent specimen collections, including the first adult specimen from the Cordillera Central, establish plumage differences between populations of R. rabori in the Cordillera Central and Sierra Madre and reveal a third diagnosable population within Luzon. These differences have gone unnoticed because R. rabori (sensu stricto) had been known only from the juvenile holotype. Molecular phylogenetic data further support the hypothesis that three highly divergent taxa occur across the Luzon Island complex: Robsonius rabori is known only from the northern Cordillera Central in Ilocos Norte; an undescribed taxon (formerly included in R. rabori) occurs in the northern Sierra Madre in Cagayan, Isabela, Aurora, and Nueva Vizcaya provinces; and R. sorsogonensis occurs in southern Luzon (Bulacan and Laguna provinces), the Bicol Peninsula, and on Catanduanes Island. The existence of three putatively allopatric species within the Luzon island complex highlights the role of in situ diversification in island systems, and brings attention to the need for forest conservation to protect geographically restricted populations throughout the Luzon Island complex.

Article title: Diversity and Distribution of Small Mammals in the Bicol Volcanic Belt of Southern Luzon Island, Philippines diversity and distribution of Small Mammals in the Bicol Volcanic Belt of Southern Luzon Island, Philippines

Authors: Danilo S. Balete, Lawrence R. Heaney, Philip A. Alviola, Eric A. Rickart

Publication title: National Museum of the Philippines: Journal of Natural History, January 2013


We conducted a survey of non-volant small mammals in 2006-2008 in four areas of the Bicol Peninsula: Mt. Labo (peak 1544 m), Mt. Malinao (peak 1548 m), Saddle Peak (peak 1003 m), and Caramoan National Park (475 m). In 11,227 trap-nights we documented nine species, of which six were native and three were introduced. The native species consisted of one shrew and five rodents; the exotic species included one shrew and two rodents. Species diversity was comparatively low overall, with each mountain supporting from three to four species. None of the four species previously documented on Mt. Isarog (Archboldomys luzon-ensis, Batomys sp., Chrotomys gonzalesi, and Rhynchomys isarogensis) were present in these newly surveyed areas; the Chrotomys from Saddle Peak and Rhynchomys from Mt. Labo are of uncertain identity. We did not record any species of large Apomys (subgenus Megapomys), which are abundant in central and northern Luzon, indicating that these forest mice are absent on the Bicol Peninsula. We captured the exotic rodents only in heavily disturbed forest and subsistence farms in the lowlands; we found the introduced Asian house shrew, Suncus murinus, only in montane forest on Mt. Labo, ca. 1335-1413 m. Relative abundance of the native species was low overall, ranging from 0.32 to 3.31 individuals/100 trap-nights. The presence of the two possibly new species of Chrotomys and Rhynchomys, in addition to the four species endemic to Mt. Isarog, highlight the uniqueness of the Bicol mammal fauna. We recommend that Saddle Peak be designated and managed as a protected area similar to the other areas we surveyed for its importance as a watershed for the municipalities of Camarines Sur surrounding it and as habitat of endemic mammals.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: The small mammals of Mt. Anacuao, Northeastern Luzon Island, Philippines: a test of predictions of Luzon mammals biodiversity patterns

Authors: Danilo S. Balete, Lawrence R. Heaney, Philip A. Alviola, Eric A. Rickart, et al.

Publication title: National Museum of the Philippines: Journal of Natural History, January 2013


Our survey of the mammals of Mt. Anacuao, Aurora Province (peak at ca. 1850 m), from 1 April to 6 May 2010, from 940 m to near the peak, documented the presence of eight species of small mammals. One of these appears to be a previously unknown species of vine-mouse (Musseromys sp.), one (Soricomys musseri) is endemic to the Northern Sierra Madre (previously known only from Mt. Cetaceo), and four others are endemic to Luzon Island. Three species were documented only near the peak; two of these (Soricomys musseri and Musseromys sp.) are endemic to the northern Sierra Madre range, and the other (Chrotomys whiteheadi) represents the first record of this species in the entire Sierra Madre. Species richness was highest near the peak, and overall abundance (assessed as number per 100 trap-nights) increased with increasing elevation; this correlation was associated with increasing utilization of earthworms (and probably other invertebrates) as a food source. We captured no exotic pest rodents at our sampling areas, all of which were forested. The number of species on ten mountains that we have surveyed intensively is significantly correlated with the peak elevation of the mountain. Mt. Anacuao is an important watershed headwater for several provinces; coupled with the presence of several local endemic species , it thus deserves designation and management as a protected area. IntroductIon The Philippine Islands have been known for over acentury as a center of remarkable mammalian endemism, with especially high levels of species richness and endemism

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: The mammals of Mt. Natib, Bataan Province, Luzon, Philippines

Authors: Eric A. Rickart, , Lawrence R. Heaney, Philip A. Alviola, Danilo S. Balete, et al.

Publication title: National Museum of the Philippines: Journal of Natural History, January 2013


Field surveys of the mammal fauna of Mt. Natib, Bataan Province, conducted in 1996 and 2005 documented a total of 20 species including nine bats, five native non-volant small mammals, two non-native small mammals, and four native large mammals. Several additional species of bats and two additional large mammals that are known to occur elsewhere in southwestern Luzon also probably occur on Mt. Natib. One native species, Apomys zambalensis, is endemic to Mt. Natib and the nearby Zambales Mountains and was the most abundant small mammal present. Survey results for non-volant mammals were consistent with predicted diversity of native species for a mountain of relatively low elevation, and strengthened a general pattern of a positive correlation between local species richness and elevation on Luzon. The occurrence of non-native species was strongly associated with highly disturbed habitats. Native species occurred across a broad range of disturbance conditions and were numerically dominant over non-natives even in the most disturbed situations. Results suggest that the Natib mammal fauna is highly tolerant of anthropogenic disturbance, perhaps reflecting a legacy of coping with periods of severe volcanic disturbance. IntroductIon The Bataan Peninsula of west-central Luzon is best known for its historical prominence as the seat of dramatic events that marked the opening of World War II in the Pacific, notably the three-month-long Battle of Bataan and the subsequent Death March (Morton, 1953). The natural history

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Nyctalus plancyi and Falsistrellus petersi (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Northern Luzon, Philippines: Ecology, Phylogeny, and Biogeographic Implications

Authors: Lawrence R. Heaney, Danilo S. Balete, Phillip Alviola, Eric A. Rickart, et al.

Publication title: Acta Chiropterologica 14(2): 265-278, December 2012


We report the first records of Nyctalus plancyi from the Philippines, on the basis of three specimens taken in high-elevation mossy forest in the Central Cordillera of northern Luzon. We also report three new specimens of Falsistrellus petersi in the same areas, previously a poorly known species within the Philippines, and provide the first genetic data on the phylogenetic position of the genus. Analysis of sequence data from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b shows ca. 4% divergence of the Philippine N. plancyi from a sample from China. Combined sequence data from cytochrome b and the nuclear gene RAG2 confirm that N. plancyi is related to Pipistrellus. They further show that F. petersi is related to Hypsugo and Vespertilio, and Philetor brachypterus is related to Tylonycteris, with all of these taxa being members of the Vespertilionini, not the Pipistrellini. Nyctalus plancyi is the first mammal species documented to have colonized the main, oceanic body of the Philippines from the north (i.e., Taiwan or mainland China),rather than from the south (Borneo, Sulawesi, or New Guinea).

Article title: Archboldomys (Muridae: Murinae) Reconsidered: A New Genus and Three New Species of Shrew Mice from Luzon Island, Philippines

Authors: Danilo S. Balete, Eric A. Rickart, Lawrence R. Heaney, Phillip A. Alviola, et al.

Publication title: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 3754(3754):1-60, September 2012


Shrew mice of the genus Archboldomys are poorly known members of an endemic clade of vermivorous/insectivorous murid rodents confined to Luzon Island, Philippines. Three species of these small, ground-living, diurnal mice were previously known, all from a handful of specimens from a few localities. The pattern of morphological and genetic differentiation among additional specimens of shrew mice from our recent field surveys in the Central Cordillera and Sierra Madre mountains of Luzon document the presence of two distinct species groups within Archboldomys as previously defined, as well as three new species. Gene-sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear IRBP genes confirm the existence of six distinct species, but also show that Archboldomys, as previously defined, is composed of two clades that are not sister taxa. Reevaluation of the presumed morphological synapomorphies among these shrew mice, together with analyses of karyological and gene-sequence data, support the following: (1) erection of Soricomys, new genus; (2) transfer of A. kalinga and A. musseri to Soricomys; and (3) recognition of Archboldomys maximus, n. sp., Soricomys leonardocoi, n. sp., and Soricomys montanus, n. sp. The new genus and species are described, and their phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and conservation are discussed.

Article title: Genomic and serological detection of bat coronavirus from bats in the Philippines

Authors: Shumpei Tsuda, Shumpei Watanabe, Joseph S Masangkay, Tetsuya Mizutani, et al.

Publication title: Archives of Virology 157(12): 2349-55, December 2012


Bat coronavirus (BtCoV) is assumed to be a progenitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses. To explore the distribution of BtCoVs in the Philippines, we collected 179 bats and detected viral RNA from intestinal or fecal samples by RT-PCR. The overall prevalence of BtCoVs among bats was 29.6 %. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene suggested that one of the detected BtCoVs was a novel alphacoronavirus, while the others belonged to the genus Betacoronavirus. Western blotting revealed that 66.5 % of bat sera had antibodies to BtCoV. These surveys suggested the endemic presence of BtCoVs in the Philippines.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Reston Ebolavirus Antibodies in Bats, the Philippines

Authors: Satoshi Taniguchi, Shumpei Watanabe, Joseph S. Masangkay, Tsutomu Omatsu, et al.

Publication title: Emerging Infectious Diseases 17(8): 1559-60, August 2011


Filoviruses cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, except for Reston Ebolavirus (REBOV), which causes severe hemorrhagic fever in macaques (1,2). REBOV epizootics among cynomolgus macaques occurred in 1989, 1990, 1992, and 1996 (2) and among swine in 2008 (3). African fruit bats have been suggested to be natural reservoirs for Zaire Ebolavirus and Marburg virus (4–6). However, the natural reservoir of REBOV in the Philippines is unknown. Thus, we determined the prevalence of REBOV antibody–positive bats in the Philippines.

Permission for this study was obtained from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the Philippines, before collecting bat specimens. Serum specimens from 141 wild-caught bats were collected at several locations during 2008–2009. The bat species tested are summarized in the Table. Captured bats were humanely killed and various tissues were obtained. Carcasses were then provided to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources for issuance of a transport permit.

Article title: Bat Coronaviruses and Experimental Infection of Bats, the Philippines

Authors: Shumpei Watanabe, Joseph S. Masangkay, Noriyo Nagata, Shigeru Morikawa, et al.

Publication title: Emerging Infectious Diseases 16(8): 1217-23, August 2010


Fifty-two bats captured during July 2008 in the Philippines were tested by reverse transcription-PCR to detect bat coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The overall prevalence of virus RNA was 55.8%. We found 2 groups of sequences that belonged to group 1 (genus Alphacoronavirus) and group 2 (genus Betacoronavirus) CoVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene showed that groups 1 and 2 CoVs were similar to Bat-CoV/China/A515/2005 (95% nt sequence identity) and Bat-CoV/HKU9-1/China/2007 (83% identity), respectively. To propagate group 2 CoVs obtained from a lesser dog-faced fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis), we administered intestine samples orally to Leschenault rousette bats (Rousettus leschenaulti) maintained in our laboratory. After virus replication in the bats was confirmed, an additional passage of the virus was made in Leschenault rousette bats, and bat pathogenesis was investigated. Fruit bats infected with virus did not show clinical signs of infection.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Detection of a new bat gammaherpesvirus in the Philippines

Authors: Shumpei Watanabe, Naoya Ueda, Koichiro Iha, Joseph S. Masangkay, et al.

Publication title: Virus Genes 39(1): 90-3, June 2009


A new bat herpesvirus was detected in the spleen of an insectivorous bat (Hipposideros diadema, family Hipposideridae) collected on Panay Island, the Philippines. PCR analyses were performed using COnsensus-DEgenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers (CODEHOPs) targeting the herpesvirus DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene. Although we obtained PCR products with CODEHOPs, direct sequencing using the primers was not possible because of high degree of degeneracy. Direct sequencing technology developed in our rapid determination system of viral RNA sequences (RDV) was applied in this study, and a partial DPOL nucleotide sequence was determined. In addition, a partial gB gene nucleotide sequence was also determined using the same strategy. We connected the partial gB and DPOL sequences with long-distance PCR, and a 3741-bp nucleotide fragment, including the 3' part of the gB gene and the 5' part of the DPOL gene, was finally determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence was novel and most similar to those of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae.

Article title: Local Participation in Natural Resource Monitoring: a Characterization of Approaches

Authors: Finn Danielsen 1, Neil D. Burgess, Andrew Balmford, Paul F. Donald, et al

Publication title: Conservation Biology : The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology


The monitoring of trends in the status of species or habitats is routine in developed countries, where it is funded by the state or large nongovernmental organizations and often involves large numbers of skilled amateur volunteers. Far less monitoring of natural resources takes place in developing countries, where state agencies have small budgets, there are fewer skilled professionals or amateurs, and socioeconomic conditions prevent development of a culture of volunteerism. The resulting lack of knowledge about trends in species and habitats presents a serious challenge for detecting, understanding, and reversing declines in natural resource values. International environmental agreements require signatories undertake systematic monitoring of their natural resources, but no system exists to guide the development and expansion of monitoring schemes. To help develop such a protocol, we suggest a typology of monitoring categories, defined by their degree of local participation, ranging from no local involvement with monitoring undertaken by professional researchers to an entirely local effort with monitoring undertaken by local people. We assessed the strengths and weaknesses of each monitoring category and the potential of each to be sustainable in developed or developing countries. Locally based monitoring is particularly relevant in developing countries, where it can lead to rapid decisions to solve the key threats affecting natural resources, can empower local communities to better manage their resources, and can refine sustainable-use strategies to improve local livelihoods. Nevertheless, we recognize that the accuracy and precision of the monitoring undertaken by local communities in different situations needs further study and field protocols need to be further developed to get the best from the unrealized potential of this approach. A challenge to conservation biologists is to identify and establish the monitoring system most relevant to a particular situation and to develop methods to integrate outputs from across the spectrum of monitoring schemes to produce wider indices of natural resources that capture the strengths of each. Resumen: El monitoreo de tendencias en el estatus de especies o hábitats es rutinario en los países desarrollados, donde es financiado por el estado o por grandes organizaciones no gubernamentales y a menudo involucra a grandes números de voluntarios amateurs competentes. El monitoreo de recursos naturales es menos intenso en los países en desarrollo, donde las agencias estatales tienen presupuestos pequeños, hay menos profesionales o amateurs competentes y las condiciones socioeconómicas limitan el desarrollo de una cultura de voluntariado. La consecuente falta de conocimientos sobre las tendencias de las especies y los hábitats presenta un serio reto para la detección, entendimiento y reversión de las declinaciones de los recursos naturales. Los tratados ambientales internacionales requieren que los signatarios realicen monitoreos sistemáticos de sus recursos naturales, pero no existe un sistema para guiar el desarrollo y la expansión de los esquemas de monitoreo. Para ayudar al desarrollo de tal protocolo, sugerimos una tipología de categorías de monitoreo, definidas por el nivel de participación local, desde ningún involucramiento local con el monitoreo realizado por investigadores profesionales hasta un esfuerzo completamente local con el monitoreo llevado a cabo por habitantes locales. Evaluamos las fortalezas y debilidades de cada categoría de monitoreo, así como su sustentabilidad potencial en países desarrollados o en desarrollo. El monitoreo basado localmente es particularmente relevante en los países en desarrollo, donde puede llevar a decisiones rápidas para resolver amenazas clave sobre sus recursos naturales, puede facultar a las comunidades locales para un mejor manejo de sus recursos naturales y puede refinar las estrategias de uso sustentable para mejorar la forma de vida local. Sin embargo, reconocemos que la precisión y exactitud del monitoreo llevado a cabo por comunidades locales en situaciones diferentes requiere de mayor estudio y los protocolos de campo requieren de mayor desarrollo para obtener lo mejor del potencial de este método. Un reto para los biólogos de la conservación es la identificación y establecimiento del sistema de monitoreo más relevante para la situación particular, así como el desarrollo de métodos para integrar los resultados de una gama de esquemas de monitoreo para producir índices de recursos naturales más amplios que capturen las fortalezas de cada uno.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Increasing Conservation Management Action by Involving Local People in Natural Resource Monitoring

Authors: Finn Danielsen, Marlynn M. Mendoza, Anson Tagtag, Phillip A. Alviola, et al.

Publication title: AMBIO A Journal of the Human Environment 36(7):566-70, December 2007


There is a need for a better understanding of the status of the environment. At the same time, concerns have been raised regarding alienation of the local populace from environmental decisions. One proposed solution is participatory environmental monitoring. When evaluating the usefulness of environmental monitoring, the focus may be on accuracy, as is usually done by scientists, or on efficiency in terms of conservation impact. To test whether investment in participatory biodiversity monitoring makes economic sense for obtaining data for management decisions, we compared the cost efficiency of participatory and conventional biodiversity monitoring methods in Philippine parks. We found that, from a government perspective, investment in monitoring that combines scientific with participatory methods is strikingly more effective than a similar level of investment in conventional scientific methods alone in generating conservation management interventions. Moreover, the local populace seemed to benefit from more secure de facto user rights over land and other resources. Participatory biodiversity monitoring not only represents a cost-effective alternative when conventional monitoring is impossible, but it is also an unexpectedly powerful complementary approach, capable of generating a much higher level of conservation management intervention, where conventional monitoring already takes place.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Report on a Survey of Mammals of the Sierra Madre Range, Luzon Island, Philippines

Authors: Mariano Roy M. Duya, Phillip A. Alviola, Melizar V. Duya, Danilo S. Balete, et al.

Publication title: Archives 4(1), 2007


An inventory of mammals was undertaken at 11 localities along the Sierra Madre range in 2002 to 2005, in areas where few or no data were available previously.  The inventory included lowland and montane forest habitats, at elevations from 300 to 1500 m.  Thirty-eight species of mammals were recorded, including nine new records for the mountain range.  One species, Kerivoula cf. papillosa, had not been recorded previously from the Philippines, and one, Coelops hirsutus, was known previously only from Mindanao and Mindoro Islands.  Two species, in the genera Apomys and Chrotomys, may represent previously unknown species.  We captured Archboldomys musseri only on Mt. Cetaceo, supporting previous evidence that it is endemic only to that mountain.

A modified mist-netting technique (V-net) for insectivorous bats was effectively used to capture these species. The new records clearly demonstrate that the mammalian fauna of the Sierra Madre is poorly known.  Surveys of many additional areas are needed in all known habitat types along the Sierra Madre, especially karst, ultrabasic, and mossy forest, to fully document its diversity.

Article title: Does Monitoring Matter? A Quantitative Assessment of Management Decisions from Locally-based Monitoring of Protected Areas

Authors: Finn Danielsen, Arne E. Jensen, Phillip A. Alviola, Danilo S. Balete, et al.

Publication title: Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 2633–2652, 2005


Biodiversity monitoring is criticized for being insufficiently relevant to the needs of managers and ineffective in integrating information into decision-making. We examined conservation management interventions resulting from 2½years of monitoring by 97 rangers and 350 community volunteers over 1million hectares of Philippine protected areas. Before this monitoring scheme was established, there was little collaboration between local people and park authorities, and park monitoring was restricted to assessments of the quantity of extracted timber. As a result of the scheme, 156 interventions were undertaken in terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. In total 98% of these interventions were meaningful and justified, 47% targeted the three most serious threats to biodiversity at the site, and 90% were implemented without external support, suggesting that the interventions were relevant and could be sustained over time at the local level. The mean time from sampling to decision-making was only 97days, probably because 82% of the interventions were initiated by the same people and institutions that had compiled the underlying data, bypassing potential government bureaucracy. Many of the interventions were jointly undertaken by community members and the management authorities or consisted of local bylaws in support of park management. As a result of the monitoring, indigenous resource use regulation schemes were re-established with government recognition in several parks. The monitoring led to more diversified and realistic management responses on the part of the authorities, including a more socially acceptable and effective approach to enforcement. Of the four field monitoring techniques used, the most participatory one generated more interventions aimed at ensuring a continued resource supply for local communities (χ23 = 69.1, p<0.01). Although this suggests that the interest of community members is associated with their possibilities to influence the flow of ecosystem goods and services, the 156 interventions targeted, directly or indirectly, all known globally threatened species of mammals, birds and butterflies in the parks.

Article title: Biodiversity monitoring in developing countries: What are we trying to achieve?

Authors: Finn Danielsen, Marlynn M. Mendoza, Phillip Alviola, Danny S. Balete, et al.

Publication title: Oryx 37(04):407 - 409, October 2003


No available

Article title: On participatory biodiversity monitoring and its applicability–a reply to Yoccoz et al. and Rodríguez

Authors: Finn Danielsen, Marlynn M. Mendoza, Anson Tagtag, Phillip Alviola

Publication title: Oryx 37(04):412 - 412, October 2003


No abstract

Article title: Herpetofauna of Puerto Galera, Mindoro Island, Philippines

Authors: Alviola, P.A.; Gonzales, J.C.T.; Dans, A.T.L.; Afuang, L.E.; et al.

Publication title: Technical Journal of Philippine Ecosystems and Natural Resources, January 1998


A total of 32 species of herpetofauna, including 15 endemic species, were recorded in different habitat types on Mount Malasimbo, Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro. Standard transect methods were used in conducting the survey. The amphibians accounted for 11 species representing five families, while the 21 species of reptiles from nine families included 13 lizards and eight snake species. Total species count and endemicity were highest at the primary forest area (15 endemics of the 22 species), followed by the secondary forest (seven endemic out of 13 species). The agroforestry area had the lowest number of recorded species (a total of 11 species), which were mostly commensal species and no endemics. Notable species include two probable new species of Mindoro endemic, a pelobatid (Leptobrachium sp.) and an anglehead (Gonocephalus sp.)