Lanndon Ocampo is an Associate Professor in the Department of Industrial Engineering and the Founding Director of the Center for Applied Mathematics and Operations Research at Cebu Technological University (Philippines). He received his Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering from De La Salle University (Philippines) and his MEng and BSc (cum laude) degrees in Industrial Engineering, as well as an MSc degree in Mathematics from the University of San Carlos (Philippines). He has authored over 130 international peer-reviewed journal papers (116 are indexed in the Scopus database) and has presented papers at over 30 research conferences. His research interests include multi-attribute decision-making, problem structuring, and uncertainty modelling. He is a Member of the Editorial Board of the Advances in Production Engineering and ManagementInternational Journal of Business and Systems Research (Inderscience), International Journal of Management and Decision Making (Inderscience), Engineering Management in Production and Services, and the Proceedings in Manufacturing Systems. He won numerous awards from the DOST-Science and Education Institute for completing the PhD program, the DOST for the National Award for Excellence in Science, the Mathematical Society of the Philippines Cebu for Best Research Paper in Applied Mathematics during the 2015 MSP Cebu Convention, the International Association on Organizational Innovation for the Outstanding Paper Award during the 2014 International Conference on Organizational Innovation, the Fairchild Semiconductor for the 2012 Best Paper Award, and several International Publication Awards from the University of the Philippines. He is a 2017 Outstanding Young Scientist awardee by the National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines (NAST PH), and a 2018 Outstanding Cebuano awardee in the field of Science and Technology. He is named one of 2018 THE ASIAN SCIENTIST 100 – an annual listing of the region’s top researchers, academics, and innovators. He is conferred as the 2019 Achievement Awardee of the National Research Council of the Philippines (NRCP) under the Division of Engineering and Industrial Research, and a recipient of the 2021 NRCP Manuscript Grant. Most recently, he has been considered as one of the 2021 Outstanding Asian Science Diplomats. Dr. Ocampo is listed in the 2021 Top 2% of the world’s researchers based on composite citation metrics developed by a team of statisticians from Stanford University and Elsevier. As of 2022, aside from university-funded projects, he has received more than Php 15 million in research project grants from the Department of Science and Technology, Department of Tourism, Commission on Higher Education, and the DOS-NRCP. With an international collaboration funded by the SingHealth Duke-NUS Global Health Institute (SDGHI), he is a member of the project team working on “Comparing COVID-19 Mitigation Strategies Across ASEAN Countries”. Also, he is the RDLeader for the Palompon Institute of Technology under the DOST Science for Change Program (S4CP). Dr. Ocampo is a Regular Member of the National Research Council of the Philippines (NRCP), a Director of the Mathematical Society of the Philippines Cebu, and a member of the International Society of Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Industrial Engineering & Operations Management Society, International Association of Engineers, Mathematical Society of the Philippines, Philippine Association of Research Managers, Inc., Outstanding Young Scientists, Inc., and Alpha Phi Omega International (Philippines), Inc.

Sex: Male


  • Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial Engineering major in Operations Research, De La Salle University, 2014
  • Master of Science in Mathematics, University of San Carlos, 2020
  • Master of Engineering in Industrial Engineering, University of San Carlos, 2011
  • Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering, University of San Carlos, 2009

Field of Specialization

Mathematical Programming

Analytic Hierarchy Process

Manufacturing Systems

Fuzzy Set Theory

Supply Chain


Article title: User Satisfaction Assessment of a Developed Temperature Monitoring System Based on A-Priori Information System Impact Model

Authors: Arneda Jean Gonzales, Celbert M. Himang, Melanie M. Himang, Rebecca Manalastas, et al.

Publication title:  International Journal of Sociotechnology and Knowledge Development 13(2): 71-89, April 2021


Network downtimes are typically addressed by deploying a temperature monitoring system (TMS) designed to detect variations in temperature and signal users of an impending increase of temperature. The development of a TMS has been found to essentially monitor temperature states across various case applications, but a concurrent analysis of such system was not carried out despite the need to recognize user satisfaction for improvement of future TMS information system components. Thus, this paper seeks to design, implement, and analyze a TMS under the a-priori information system (IS) impact model, which incorporates the constructs on individual impact, organizational impact, information quality, and system quality, in an academic institution as case environment. It is found that all four constructs have a positive influence on the proposed TMS IS impact except for organizational impact. Under such a case, decision-makers are prompted to develop a product that anchors primarily on individual impact, information quality, and system quality to attain desired system outputs.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Using the Interpretative Structural Modeling Approach for Understanding the Relationships of Drivers of Online Shopping: Evidence From a Developing Economy

Authors: Roy Jucip Tabañag Basar III, Honey Rose Borden, Manuel Lorenzo Busano III, Xelani Kaye Gonzales, et al.

Publication title: International Journal of Sociotechnology and Knowledge Development 13(2): 90-104, April 2021


The internet has paved the way for a revolution in the shopping industry via online platforms. As online shopping transactions become popular, it is increasingly important to understand the drivers that influence the consumers in availing such platforms. Furthermore, the differences between developed and developing economies are evident from socioeconomic, regulatory, and e-commerce disparities. Understanding such domain from a developing economies perspective is not well explored in the current literature. Thus, this study aims to identify the relationships among drivers of consumers in pursuing online shopping in a developing economy (i.e., the Philippines) using interpretative structural modeling. The study identified six drivers: “convenience/ease of use,” “competitive price,” “product availability,” “value of time,” “access to more information,” and “several payment options.” Results show that all drivers, except for “competitive price,” are closely interlinked to each other, such that initiatives must be simultaneously developed to address these drivers under resource constraints.

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Article title: The impact of social media marketing strategies on promoting sustainability of tourism with fuzzy cognitive mapping: a case of Kalanggaman Island (Philippines)

Authors: Kafferine Yamagishi, Lanndon Ocampo, Dharyll Prince Abellana, Reciel Ann Tanaid,

Publication title: Environment, Development and Sustainability, March 2021


The current literature has espoused the role of social media platforms in promoting tourism destinations. Despite such advances, limited works are reported on how social media foster the sustainability of tourist destinations. This work builds upon the argument that sustainable tourism (ST) agenda and initiatives can be integrated alongside the traditional competitive mission of social media marketing as a communications strategy of tourism stakeholders. With such an argument and the scarce literature on the topic, this paper analyzes the impact of social media strategies on marketing indicators contextualized within ST. In addressing this objective, a fuzzy cognitive mapping technique is adopted to examine the changes in marketing performance indicators given an initial set of activation values of social media marketing strategies. A case study in Kalanggaman Island (Philippines), an emerging tourist destination, is carried out to demonstrate the evaluation process. Three policy scenarios with interrelated social media marketing strategies are examined: minimal effort, moving visuals, and collaborative strategies. The minimal effort scenario increases counting metrics, comments, and Web traffic, while the moving visuals scenario yields increases in reach, counting metrics, comments, and Web traffic. Finally, the collaborative strategies scenario enhances indicators on awareness, the share of voice, counting metrics, comments, and lead. The findings generated from the proposed framework provide policy- and decision-makers a platform for analyzing possible social media policies in disseminating the ST agenda.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: The future of farm tourism in the Philippines: challenges, strategies and insights

Authors: Kafferine Yamagishi, Cecil Gantalao, Lanndon Ocampo 

Publication title: Journal of Tourism Futures, March 2021


Purpose This study aims to draw observations on the current status and potentials of the Philippines as a farm tourism destination and identify the underlying factors that inhibit farm tourism development. It intends to gauge the challenges that Filipino farmers face in diversifying farms and operating farm sites and uses these challenges in crafting strategies and policies for relevant stakeholders. It also provides Philippine farm tourism literature to address the limitations of references in the topic. Design/methodology/approach The study adopts an exploratory type of inquiry method and secondary data collection from various sources, such as published journal articles, news articles and reports, to gain insights and relevant information on farm tourism. The study also uses a threats, opportunities, weaknesses and strengths analysis approach to develop competitive farm tourism strategies. Findings The Philippines, with vast agricultural land, has the necessary base for farm tourism, and the enactment of the Farm Tourism Development Act of 2016 bridges this potential. With low agricultural outputs, the country draws relevance for farm tourism as a farm diversification strategy to supplement income in rural communities. While having these potentials, crucial initiatives in physical characteristics, product development, education and training, management and entrepreneurship, marketing and customer relations and government support must be implemented. Farmers' lack of skills, training and capital investment potential to convert their farms into farm tourism sites serves as the major drawback. Thus, developing entrepreneurial and hospitality skills is crucial. Originality/value This work presents a historical narrative of initiatives and measures of the Philippine farm tourism sector. It also provides a holistic discussion and in-depth analysis of the current state, potentials, strategies and forward insights for farm tourism development.

Article title: The use of the Delphi method with non-parametric analysis for identifying sustainability criteria and indicators in evaluating ecotourism management: the case of Penang National Park (Malaysia)

Authors: Marzieh Fallah and Lanndon Ocampo

Publication title: Environment Systems and Decisions 41(1): 1-18, March 2021


This paper attempts to develop criteria and indicators (C&I) for measuring the sustainability of ecotourism activities in Penang National Park (PNP) in Malaysia. In carrying out this objective, a Delphi process with Content Validity Ratios—a non-parametric tool—for generating a consensus for C&I sets was adopted with 30 academic and non-academic experts in sustainable tourism, ecotourism, and forestry. After four rounds of discussion, the panel members reached a consensus on a C&I set which consists of ecological (three criteria and seven indicators), social (three criteria and eight indicators), economic (two criteria and four indicators), and institutional (one criterion and two indicators) factors for ecotourism management. A consistency reliability test was also conducted, and the Cronbach’s alpha values of criteria and indicators were reported to be acceptable. This C&I set enables the provision of a suitable approach for managing ecotourism in a sustainable manner in Penang National Park. It can serve as an instrument for the sustainability evaluation and monitoring of ecotourism management in PNP by the Department of Wildlife and Tourism Organization in Malaysia. The proposed approach and the resulting C&I could be resonated with other national parks as ecotourism destinations with similar relevant characteristics of the PNP.

Article title: A Critical Literature Analysis of the Relationships of Marketing and Strategic Planning Under Project Environments

Authors: Brian J. Galli, Miriam F. Bongo, Kafferine D. Yamagishi, Lanndon A. Ocampo

Publication title: International Journal of Service Science Management Engineering and Technology, 12(2): 1-24, March 2021


This paper investigates marketing and strategic planning issues, its relationship to project management, and the factors affecting these relationships. The authors perform an unstructured and structured literature review, which identified 83 articles that explore the critical variables in this paper. Factors are often seen as operational factors that are directed towards personnel tasked with daily operations. Notably, project management, when tasked with marketing and strategic planning, is challenged to cope with evolving situational alterations that require a different set of skills. Particularly, they contribute to several bodies of knowledge, including project management, decision-making, strategic planning, marketing, and leadership. The study builds on these bodies of knowledge and also addresses gaps identified in these research fields. They contribute to research on factors through various avenues for future research.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: A bi-level optimization for a make-to-order manufacturing supply chain planning: a case in the steel industry

Authors: Lanndon A. Ocampo 

Publication title: Journal of Management Analytics, January 2021


No available

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Holistically addressing uncertainty in group decision-making: the case of a 'quasi-collaborative' group structure

Authors: Lanndon A. Ocampo, Eppie E. Clark, Anthony S.F. Chiu, Raymond R. Tan

Publication title: International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research 16(3): 316-353, January 2020


This paper presents a methodology that holistically captures the uncertainty of judgment in 'quasi-collaborative' group decision-making in the context of the analytic hierarchy/network process. The proposed method is motivated mainly by the two uncertainty approaches that seemingly diverge in literature: the simulation approach and the fuzzy set theory (FST) approach. In the proposed method, FST is used to handle the judgmental uncertainty of individual decision-maker while simulation addresses randomness and uncertainty when individual judgments are aggregated as a group decision. An illustrative problem is presented in this paper along with a numerical experiment that attempts to compare the efficacy of the proposed methodology with existing methods. Results show that the method is more capable of handling uncertain group decisions through simulation runs and it can perform sensitivity analysis which is essential in testing robustness of judgment results. Finally, the proposed method can identify non-expert member of the group.

Article title: Integrated multiphase sustainable product design with a hybrid quality function deployment – multi-attribute decision-making (QFD-MADM) framework

Authors: Lanndon A. Ocampo, John James T. Labrador, Ammabelle Marie B. Jumao-as, Alona Mae O. Rama

Publication title:  Sustainable Production and Consumption 24: 62-78, October 2020


With quality function deployment (QFD) as its basis, the product design team is instrumental in promoting sustainability by incorporating relevant requirements in the early stages of the design process. The domain literature, however, contains significant gaps, especially for food products. First, the current literature fails to consider the requirements of all relevant stakeholders, which are crucial to sustainability. Second, while some offer various models of fuzzy QFD – multiple-attribute decision-making (QFD-MADM), they fail to comprehensively address the underlying interdependencies of decision parameters in the QFD. Furthermore, the majority of the works on QFD-MADM limit themselves to product planning while losing control over other subsequent phases of product development. Thus, this work attempts to advance these gaps by proposing an integrated multiphase fuzzy QFD-MADM framework that combines QFD, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), and analytic network process (ANP) along with fuzzy set theory. A case study in a Philippine meat processing industry was implemented to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results of the case study show the crucial decision parameters for all phases, which would serve as inputs to design teams. Unlike previous models, the proposed framework preserves the transition of the priorities flow along with all four phases of product development. Thus, the stakeholder requirements are integrated into all product development stages, which is a strong indication that these requirements are addressed in each phase. Also, the proposed framework ensures that the uncertainty and the underlying complexities of interdependencies among decision parameters of the four phases of product design and development are addressed. The proposed framework contributes to sustainable product design literature in a manner that is comprehensive and analytical.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: Modeling the lockdown relaxation protocols of the Philippine government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic: An intuitionistic fuzzy DEMATEL analysis

Authors: Lanndon Ocampo and Kafferine Yamagishi

Publication title: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 72: 100911, December 2020


The COVID-19 pandemic, which started at Wuhan, has shut down world economies, prompting governments to impose drastic lockdown measures of the economy and the society. As these measures are exhausted, non-COVID-19 related issues such as those associated with the mental and physical well-being of people under lockdowns became an emerging concern. As these issues are evident, not to mention the economic downturn, governments are currently looking at designing lockdown relaxation efforts by simultaneously considering both public health and economic restart. Without documented experiences to rely on, governments are resorting to trial-and-error approach in creating a lockdown exit strategy while preventing succeeding waves of cases that may overwhelm healthcare facilities. Thus, this work pioneers the use of the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method with intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) sets along with the domain of public health and the emerging COVID-19 pandemic. The DEMATEL handles the intertwined causal relationships among guideline protocols for the relaxation strategy. The intuitionistic fuzzy set theory addresses the vagueness and uncertainty of human judgments in the context of the DEMATEL. A case study of the Philippine government response for the lockdown exit is presented to evaluate the applicability of the proposed method. Findings reveal that compliance of minimum public health standards, limited movement of persons, suspension of physical classes, the prohibition of mass gatherings, non-operation of category IV industries, and non-operation of hotels or similar establishments are the most crucial protocols for such strategy. These findings offer practical insights for the government to allocate resources and impose measures to ensure their implementation, as well as for developing mitigation efforts to cushion their socio-economic impacts. Policy insights and avenues for future works are also discussed.

Article title: An integrated grey-based multi-criteria decision-making approach for supplier evaluation and selection in the oil and gas industry

Authors: Mohamad Amin Kaviani, Amir Karbassi Yazdi, Lanndon Ocampo, Simonov Kusi-Sarpong Kybernetes

Publication title: Kybernetes 49(2), February 2019


The oil and gas industry is a crucial economic sector to both developed and developing economies. Delays in extraction and refining of these resources would adversely affect industrial players including that of the host countries. Supplier selection is one of the most important decisions taken by managers of this industry that affect their supply chain operations. However, determining suitable suppliers to work with has become a phenomenon faced by these managers and their organizations. Furthermore, identifying relevant, critical and important criteria needed to guide these managers and their organizations for supplier selection decisions has become even more complicated due to various criteria that be taken into consideration. With limited works in the current literature of supplier selection in the oil and gas industry having major methodological drawbacks, this paper attempts to develop an integrated approach for supplier selection in the oil and gas industry. To address this problem, this paper proposes a new uncertain decision framework. A grey-Delphi approach is first applied to aid in the evaluation and refinement of these various available criteria to obtain the most important and relevant criteria for the oil and gas industry. The grey systems theoretic concept is adopted to address the subjectivity and uncertainty in human judgments. The grey-Shannon Entropy approach is employed to determine the criteria weights, and finally, the grey-EDAS (Evaluation based on Distance from Average Solution) method is utilized for determining the ranking of the suppliers. To exemplify the applicability and robustness of the proposed approach, this study uses the oil and gas industry of Iran as a case in point. From the literature review, 21 criteria were established and using the grey-Delphi approach, 16 were finally considered. The four top-ranked criteria, using grey-Shannon Entropy, include warranty level and experience time, relationship closeness, supplier’s technical level, and risks which are considered as the most critical and influential criteria for supplier evaluation in the Iranian oil and gas industry. The ranking of the suppliers is obtained, and the best and worst suppliers are also identified. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results using the proposed methodology are robust. The proposed approach would assist supply chain practicing managers including purchasing managers, procurement managers and supply chain managers in the oil and gas and other industries to effectively select suitable suppliers for cooperation. It can also be used for supplier selection problems in other industries. It can also be used for other multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) applications. Future works on applying other MCDM methods and comparing them with the results of this study can be addressed. Finally, broader and more empirical works are required in the oil and gas industry. This study is among the first few studies of supplier selection in the oil and gas industry from an emerging economy perspective and sets the stage for future research. The proposed integrated grey-based MCDM approach provides robust results in supplier evaluation and can be used for future domain applications.

Full text available upon request to the author

Article title: A novel multiple criteria decision-making approach based on fuzzy DEMATEL, fuzzy ANP and fuzzy AHP for mapping collection and distribution centers in reverse logistics

Authors: Lanndon Ocampo, Celebrity Himang, Anil Kumar, M. Brezocnik

Publication title: Advances in Production Engineering and Management 14(3): 297-322, September 2019


The strategic location of reverse logistics facilities enables organizations to obtain optimal performance to collect end-of-line (EOL) products and distribute remanufactured products effectively and efficiently. The planning of facility location entails consideration of multiple essential criteria rather than optimizing a single criterion. This paper develops a methodological framework based on an integrated multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach that captures the complexity of location planning for collection and distribution centers under fuzzy conditions utilizing decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), analytic network process (ANP), and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). This novel approach aids decision-makers to simultaneously select a separate location for collection and distribution through a holistic assessment of a location's viability for both purposes. It advances the reverse logistics literature by considering multiple criteria and their interrelationships in the location selection process, along with uncertainty and vagueness in decision making. Additionally, the proposed approach allows flexibility for decision-makers as they retain the control in picking a site based on its priority on being a collection or distribution center. Results show that government policies and regulations play a vital role in the facility location decision as they interact mostly with other criteria. Moreover, results also suggest that quantity and quality uncertainties for remanufacturing are significant factors that must be taken into consideration in the collection function, while economic and market-oriented issues are major concerns for a distribution function. This finding was observed through the application of the proposed methodological framework in a case study of the furniture industry in the Philippines. The practical implications of this study focus on being an aid in organizing and improving the operations of the reverse logistics sector of the Philippines. Finally, the proposed approach can be used to address general facility location problems in other industrial applications where tradeoffs among stakeholders or entities are well pronounced and decision-makers find it imperative that such tradeoffs must be carefully considered.